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Earnings and Benefits - Employee Benefits

workers occupations median weekly

Private Companies

According to data from the BLS National Compensation Survey (http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/sp/ebsm0003.pdf), workers in goods-producing industries had greater access to benefits in March 2005 than did employees of service-producing industries. In addition, those who worked for companies that employed at least 100 people often had greater access to a variety of benefits than did employees of small companies, especially retirement plans, health insurance, and disability benefits.

The U.S. Chamber of Commerce's 2004 Employee Benefits Study offers an overview of the employee benefits practices of 609 employers. The results of this study show that in 2003 participating companies offered employees an average of 8.7 paid holidays. In general larger firms recognize more paid holidays than do smaller companies.

In addition to paid holidays, many companies also offered paid time off for vacation, personal business, and

TABLE 6.3 Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by detailed occupation and sex, 2005

TABLE 6.3
Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by detailed occupation and sex, 2005
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation 2005
Both sexes Men Women
Number of workers Median weekly earnings Number of workers Median weekly earnings Number of workers Median weekly earnings
    Total, 16 years and over 103,560 $651 58,406 $722 45,154 $585
Management, professional, and related occupations 36,908 937 18,311 1,113 18,597 813
Management, business, and financial operations occupations 14,977 997 8,195 1,167 6,782 847
    Management occupations 10,340 1,083 6,219 1,230 4,122 902
        Chief executives 1,043 1,834 790 1,903 253 1,413
        General and operations managers 754 1,099 528 1,152 226 932
        Advertising and promotions managers 66 870 28 * 38 *
        Marketing and sales managers 728 1,235 445 1,440 283 990
        Administrative services managers 73 978 51 1,104 22 *
        Computer and information systems managers 326 1,428 227 1,540 100 1,094
        Financial managers 949 1,061 446 1,347 503 853
        Human resources managers 263 1,083 75 1,357 188 998
        Industrial production managers 295 1,123 247 1,147 48 *
        Purchasing managers 184 1,099 112 1,199 72 939
        Transportation, storage, and distribution managers 227 757 200 771 28 *
        Farm, ranch, and other agricultural managers 77 680 65 689 13 *
        Construction managers 430 1,051 400 1,060 30 *
        Education administrators 712 1,114 272 1,289 440 972
        Engineering managers 89 1,788 80 1,852 9 *
        Food service managers 594 651 345 740 249 549
        Lodging managers 100 647 48 * 52 525
        Medical and health services managers 432 1,089 123 1,327 308 1,026
        Property, real estate, and community association managers 341 724 149 803 193 662
        Social and community service managers 258 838 82 990 176 784
    Business and financial operations occupations 4,637 871 1,976 1,037 2,660 778
        Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products 153 802 77 930 75 708
        Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products 271 785 126 912 145 710
        Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators 276 789 102 971 174 706
        Compliance officers, except agriculture, construction, health, safety, and transportation 128 893 71 877 57 923
        Cost estimators 80 941 67 961 14 *
        Human resources, training, and labor relations specialists 585 791 168 904 417 762
        Management analysts 288 1,229 160 1,362 128 981
        Accountants and auditors 1,383 887 529 1,072 855 784
        Appraisers and assessors of real estate 74 832 42 * 32 *
        Budget analysts 50 1,050 14 * 35 *
        Financial analysts 74 1,136 41 * 33 *
        Personal financial advisors 270 1,134 188 1,239 83 888
        Insurance underwriters 110 894 31 * 79 851
        Loan counselors and officers 387 861 178 977 210 786
        Tax examiners, collectors, and revenue agents 72 764 30 * 43 *
        Tax preparers 52 668 16 * 36 *
Professional and related occupations 21,931 902 10,116 1,058 11,815 792
    Computer and mathematical occupations 2,924 1,132 2,164 1,174 760 1,007
        Computer scientists and systems analysts 647 1,091 449 1,140 198 983
        Computer programmers 524 1,086 391 1,129 133 1,014
        Computer software engineers 778 1,401 612 1,456 165 1,174
        Computer support specialists 310 823 215 809 95 858
        Database administrators 82 1,116 58 1,314 23 *
        Network and computer systems administrators 201 1,058 166 1,072 34 *
        Network systems and data communications analysts 254 1,062 195 1,082 59 952
        Operations research analysts 80 1,252 43 * 38 *
    Architecture and engineering occupations 2,509 1,105 2,187 1,133 322 945
        Architects, except naval 176 1,146 134 1,147 42 *
        Aerospace engineers 88 1,362 78 1,449 10 *
        Civil engineers 277 1,138 239 1,166 37 *
        Computer hardware engineers 72 1,405 66 1,524 5 *
        Electrical and electronics engineers 330 1,350 309 1,354 22 *
        Industrial engineers, including health and safety 185 1,161 157 1,198 28 *
        Mechanical engineers 306 1,262 288 1,265 18 *
        Drafters 186 769 144 783 42 *
        Engineering technicians, except drafters 354 805 287 819 67 695
        Surveying and mapping technicians 98 735 96 742 2 *

TABLE 6.3 Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by detailed occupation and sex, 2005 (CONTINUED)

TABLE 6.3
Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by detailed occupation and sex, 2005 (CONTINUED)
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation 2005
Both sexes Men Women
Number of workers Median weekly earnings Number of workers Median weekly earnings Number of workers Median weekly earnings
    Life, physical, and social science occupations 1,164 965 712 1,073 452 837
        Biological scientists 106 890 56 1,000 49 *
        Medical scientists 125 935 70 934 55 938
        Chemists and materials scientists 109 1,128 72 1,241 36 *
        Environmental scientists and geoscientists 87 1,217 66 1,223 21 *
        Market and survey researchers 106 997 52 1,138 54 898
        Psychologists 83 966 32 * 50 909
        Chemical technicians 85 699 60 701 25 *
    Community and social services occupations 1,797 725 742 797 1,054 683
        Counselors 499 740 154 788 345 728
        Social workers 602 700 129 780 473 682
        Miscellaneous community and social service specialists 237 662 90 751 146 608
        Clergy 385 785 335 813 49 *
    Legal occupations 1,162 1,052 524 1,531 638 846
        Lawyers 598 1,609 395 1,748 203 1,354
        Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers 73 1,101 43 * 30 *
        Paralegals and legal assistants 311 740 50 769 261 737
        Miscellaneous legal support workers 181 715 37 * 144 702
    Education, training, and library occupations 6,066 798 1,660 960 4,405 753
        Postsecondary teachers 808 1,072 485 1,173 323 924
        Preschool and kindergarten teachers 515 521 19 * 495 520
        Elementary and middle school teachers 2,204 826 403 909 1,801 813
        Secondary school teachers 1,037 878 460 942 577 841
        Special education teachers 382 868 55 949 327 853
        Other teachers and instructors 306 728 120 803 187 657
        Librarians 163 829 25 * 137 826
        Teacher assistants 546 398 50 398 496 398
    Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations 1,488 819 865 885 623 735
        Artists and related workers 83 868 54 989 28 *
        Designers 500 816 282 920 218 653
        Producers and directors 75 971 48 * 28 *
        Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers 123 713 102 749 21 *
        Musicians, singers, and related workers 51 893 38 * 13 *
        News analysts, reporters and correspondents 62 866 31 * 31 *
        Public relations specialists 135 860 49 * 86 817
        Editors 108 865 49 * 59 794
        Writers and authors 70 887 27 * 43 *
        Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators 64 813 59 823 6 *
        Photographers 53 721 34 * 19 *
    Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations 4,821 878 1,262 1,043 3,560 834
        Dietitians and nutritionists 51 666 3 * 47 *
        Pharmacists 185 1,557 96 1,597 89 1,483
        Physicians and surgeons 562 1,547 375 1,862 187 1,134
        Physician assistants 52 1,155 26 * 26 *
        Registered nurses 1,805 935 151 1,011 1,654 930
        Occupational therapists 59 996 5 * 55 983
        Physical therapists 117 1,036 43 * 74 1,014
        Respiratory therapists 80 854 34 * 46 *
        Speech-language pathologists 68 933 7 * 60 914
        Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 279 750 82 836 197 725
        Dental hygienists 53 895 3 * 49 *
        Diagnostic related technologists and technicians 212 873 67 973 145 789
        Emergency medical technicians and paramedics 144 658 110 730 34 *
        Health diagnosing and treating practitioner support technicians 290 504 53 521 237 503
        Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses 401 625 31 * 369 621
        Medical records and health information technicians 104 543 15 * 88 522
Service occupations 14,123 413 7,024 478 7,099 379
    Healthcare support occupations 2,085 410 243 422 1,842 408
        Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides 1,334 388 153 406 1,181 385
        Dental assistants 150 474 8 * 142 479

illness in 2003. According to the Chamber of Commerce study, 75% of the surveyed firms offer a traditional plan that includes a prescribed number of vacation days per years of employee tenure plus a certain number of sick days, while 25% offer a hybrid plan of general paid days off that individual workers can choose to use as needed for sick days, personal business, or vaction time. The BLS compensation survey indicated that as of March 2005, 77% of U.S. workers had both paid holidays and paid vacations.

TABLE 6.3 Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by detailed occupation and sex, 2005 (CONTINUED)

TABLE 6.3
Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by detailed occupation and sex, 2005 (CONTINUED)
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation 2005
Both sexes Men Women
Number of workers Median weekly earnings Number of workers Median weeklyearnings Number of workers Median weekly earnings
    Protective service occupations 2,549 678 2,025 729 525 514
        First-line supervisors/managers of police and detectives 121 1,009 105 1,010 15 *
        Firefighters 228 944 219 952 9 *
        Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers 401 605 286 632 115 531
        Detectives and criminal investigators 119 1,054 88 1,188 31 *
        Police and sheriff's patrol officers 669 826 573 849 97 738
        Private detectives and investigators 68 662 39 * 29 *
        Security guards and gaming surveillance officers 667 481 507 508 159 405
    Food preparation and serving related occupations 4,007 356 2,041 371 1,966 337
        Chefs and head cooks 275 486 229 494 46 *
        First-line supervisors/managers of food preparation and serving workers 451 422 179 522 272 398
        Cooks 1,198 336 766 350 433 314
        Food preparation workers 339 321 149 324 189 318
        Bartenders 210 420 102 422 107 417
        Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food 132 310 34 * 98 308
        Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop 90 292 34 * 56 289
        Waiters and waitresses 848 352 292 384 556 332
        Food servers, nonrestaurant 82 409 40 * 42 *
        Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers 163 347 92 367 72 *
        Dishwashers 141 296 112 293 29 *
        Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop 77 332 12 * 65 322
    Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations 3,425 394 2,176 428 1,249 344
        First-line supervisors/managers of housekeeping and janitorial work 177 537 120 613 57 433
        First-line supervisors/managers of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers 101 593 98 598 3 *
        Janitors and building cleaners 1,477 408 1,056 441 421 363
        Maids and housekeeping cleaners 829 335 105 390 724 328
        Pest control workers 55 508 54 511 1 *
        Grounds maintenance workers 787 389 744 393 43 *
    Personal care and service occupations 2,057 409 540 491 1,517 390
        First-line supervisors/managers of gaming workers 81 628 40 * 41 *
        First-line supervisors/managers of personal service workers 58 577 27 * 31 *
        Nonfarm animal caretakers 57 379 14 * 43 *
        Gaming services workers 77 579 39 * 38 *
        Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists 285 416 27 * 258 409
        Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges 60 457 49 * 11 *
        Transportation attendants 77 680 22 * 55 619
        Child care workers 444 332 30 * 414 330
        Personal and home care aides 402 390 75 442 328 381
        Recreation and fitness workers 181 487 73 494 107 479
Sales and office occupations 25,193 575 9,539 690 15,654 520
    Sales and related occupations 10,031 622 5,582 762 4,449 483
        First-line supervisors/managers of retail sales workers 2,365 631 1,386 723 979 525
        First-line supervisors/managers of non-retail sales workers 922 881 673 944 250 753
        Cashiers 1,428 336 363 389 1,064 322
        Counter and rental clerks 102 429 55 589 48 *
        Parts salespersons 123 562 109 586 14 *
        Retail salespersons 1,869 494 1,060 606 810 401
        Advertising sales agents 194 870 95 1,017 99 730
        Insurance sales agents 341 742 162 908 178 624
        Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents 288 1,007 195 1,239 93 733
        Travel agents 56 593 11 * 46 *
        Sales representatives, services, all other 369 814 257 919 112 648
        Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing 1,140 920 851 960 289 737
        Real estate brokers and sales agents 489 773 213 989 275 716
        Telemarketers 98 367 28 * 70 360
        Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers 66 422 46 * 21 *

Many employees are entitled to additional vacation days with increasing length of employment. The Chamber of Commerce study reported that, generally, the allowable vacation periods or paid days off were 8.4 to 13.7 days for employees with one year of service; 13.1 to 18.4 days (five years); 16.3 to 21.9 days (ten years); 18.2 to 23.5 days (fifteen years); and 19.5 to 24.6 days (twenty years).

As of March 2005, according to the National Compensation Survey, 70% of workers had access to TABLE 6.3 Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by detailed occupation and sex, 2005 (CONTINUED)employer-provided medical care plans and slightly more than half of workers (53%) participated in such plans. (See Table 6.4.) Of those with medical coverage, the employees' share of single and family coverage averaged 18% and 29%, respectively. Seventy-six percent of single employees were required to contribute to the cost of their medical insurance in 2005, as were 88%of those with family coverage. The average monthly employee contribution rose from about $12.00 in the mid-1980s to $60.24 for individual coverage in 2003, to $68.96 in 2005. On average, the cost

TABLE 6.3
Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by detailed occupation and sex, 2005 (CONTINUED)
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation 2005
Both sexes Men Women
Number of workers Median weekly earnings Number of workers Median weekly earnings Number of workers Median weekly earnings
   Office and administrative support occupations 15,161 550 3,957 605 11,205 533
       First-line supervisors/managers of office and administrative support 1,399 686 447 796 953 656
       Bill and account collectors 175 518 60 516 115 519
       Billing and posting clerks and machine operators 355 572 42 * 313 566
       Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks 964 555 102 580 861 551
       Payroll and timekeeping clerks 136 613 12 * 123 611
       Tellers 296 426 26 * 270 425
       Court, municipal, and license clerks 95 575 14 * 81 571
       Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks 64 607 15 * 49 *
       Customer service representatives 1,490 524 480 624 1,010 505
       File clerks 255 507 54 513 201 505
       Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks 107 376 41 * 66 367
       Interviewers, except eligibility and loan 128 502 29 * 99 501
       Library assistants, clerical 58 517 5 * 54 496
       Loan interviewers and clerks 179 623 45 * 134 614
       Order clerks 120 519 42 * 77 509
       Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping 60 601 5 * 55 580
       Receptionists and information clerks 923 466 76 504 846 463
       Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks 134 626 44 * 90 586
       Couriers and messengers 212 664 182 678 31 *
       Dispatchers 274 584 105 613 168 556
       Postal service clerks 147 791 89 830 58 750
       Postal service mail carriers 295 832 185 874 110 733
       Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators 109 751 59 763 50 742
       Production, planning, and expediting clerks 275 694 123 767 152 650
       Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks 472 488 334 504 138 450
       Stock clerks and order fillers 1,012 427 651 448 361 409
       Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping 60 467 26 * 35 *
       Secretaries and administrative assistants 2,684 562 73 654 2,611 559
       Computer operators 164 599 76 674 89 541
       Data entry keyers 403 509 79 529 324 507
       Word processors and typists 216 500 10 * 206 499
       Insurance claims and policy processing clerks 238 560 35 * 204 565
       Mail clerks and mail machine operators except postal service 99 508 47 * 52 480
       Office clerks, general 672 518 98 591 574 509
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 12,086 623 11,569 628 517 486
   Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations 755 372 601 388 154 327
       Graders and sorters, agricultural products 63 402 15 * 48 *
       Logging workers 64 483 62 485 2 *
   Construction and extraction occupations 6,826 604 6,663 606 163 480
       First-line supervisors/managers of construction trades and extraction workers 645 830 626 839 20 *
       Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons 166 598 166 598
       Carpenters 1,213 556 1,196 559 17 *
       Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers 178 482 176 484 2 *
       Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers 90 519 88 518 2 *
       Construction laborers 1,170 502 1,132 504 38 *
       Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators 367 733 356 735 11 *
       Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers 185 511 184 510 1 *
       Electricians 747 713 734 712 13 *
       Painters, construction and maintenance 384 466 367 469 17 *
       Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 550 703 547 704 2 *
       Roofers 209 500 203 503 6 *
       Sheet metal workers 127 653 123 655 4 *
       Structural iron and steel workers 58 772 57 768 1 *
       Helpers, construction trades 110 437 108 430 2 *
       Construction and building inspectors 84 791 75 824 9 *
       Highway maintenance workers 86 581 83 575 3 *

TABLE 6.3 Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by detailed occupation and sex, 2005 (CONTINUED)

TABLE 6.3
Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by detailed occupation and sex, 2005 (CONTINUED)
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation 2005
Both sexes Men Women
Number of workers Median weekly earnings Number of workers Median weekly earnings Number of workers Median weekly earnings
   Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations 4,504 705 4,305 706 199 691
       First-line supervisors/managers of mechanics, installers, and repairers 307 814 289 817 18 *
       Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers 336 753 291 749 45 *
       Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers 206 861 177 858 29 *
       Security and fire alarm systems installers 56 705 53 730 3 *
       Aircraft mechanics and service technicians 137 919 129 920 8 *
       Automotive body and related repairers 137 587 135 579 2 *
       Automotive service technicians and mechanics 724 629 711 631 13 *
       Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists 326 694 325 693 1 *
       Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics 218 726 216 727 1 *
       Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers 314 693 311 694 3 *
       Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics 444 724 430 724 14 *
       Maintenance and repair workers, general 305 631 294 635 11 *
       Millwrights 58 824 55 891 3 *
       Electrical power-line installers and repairers 105 868 102 875 4 *
       Telecommunications line installers and repairers 145 788 136 780 9 *
       Precision instrument and equipment repairers 54 819 50 877 4 *
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 15,251 540 11,963 591 3,288 420
   Production occupations 8,403 538 5,991 608 2,412 423
       First-line supervisors/managers of production and operating workers 825 761 662 817 162 545
       Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers 195 473 79 528 117 441
       Bakers 117 411 58 480 59 357
       Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers 262 444 206 471 56 400
       Food batchmakers 71 465 44 * 26 *
       Computer control programmers and operators 54 697 49 * 5 *
       Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders 120 502 90 533 30 *
       Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators 55 557 48 * 7 *
       Machinists 401 697 376 712 25 *
       Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal 60 529 46 * 13 *
       Tool and die makers 91 821 91 824 1 *
       Welding, soldering, and brazing workers 550 599 518 608 32 *
       Printing machine operators 201 585 170 617 30 *
       Laundry and dry-cleaning workers 125 372 43 * 82 347
       Sewing machine operators 236 360 64 372 171 355
       Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters 53 516 50 518 4 *
       Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood 54 428 48 * 6 *
       Stationary engineers and boiler operators 108 819 105 797 2 *
       Water and liquid waste treatment plant and system operators 69 674 67 710 2 *
       Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders 56 769 50 717 7 *
       Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers 95 498 84 503 11 *
       Cutting workers 94 496 72 525 22 *
       Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers 618 596 380 679 237 486
       Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians 76 545 39 * 37 *
       Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders 291 410 132 452 159 384
       Painting workers 177 562 155 592 23 *
       Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders 58 603 42 * 16 *

to employees of family health coverage rose from $228.98 per month in 2003 to $273.03 in 2005. (See Table 6.5.)

State and Local Governments

About three-fourths (73%) of employees of state and local governments had paid holidays in 1998 (still the most current statistics available from the BLS and published in December 2000). More than one-third (38%) of government workers were eligible for paid personal leave, and 96% had paid sick leave. Also as a benefit, 95% of state and local government employees were offered unpaid family leave. Most (89%) participated in employer-provided life insurance plans, and 86% had medical care plans, with 51% of the participants paying a monthly contribution to the health plan. Most government employees (98%) were provided with retirement income benefits.

Types of Employees

In 2005 blue-collar and service employees were less likely than other types of employees to participate in TABLE 6.3 Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by detailed occupation and sex, 2005 (CONTINUED) "39. Median Weekly Earnings of Full-time Wage and Salary Workers by Detailed Occupation and Sex, 2005," Current Population Survey, U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2005, http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsaat39.pdf (accessed January 8, 2006)some employee benefit programs. For example, 51% of blue-collar employees, and 22% of employees in service occupations had retirement benefits, as compared with 61% of white-collar employees. On the other hand, workers in traditional blue-collar occupations were more likely to be covered by a medical care plan (61%) than were white-collar workers (58%) or service workers (27%). According to BLS statistics, white-collar occupations surpassed blue-collar and service occupations in all categories of paid time off in 2005. For example, white-collar (85%) workers were more likely to receive paid holidays than were blue-collar (81%) or service occupations workers (49%). Seventy-four percent of white-collar workers were eligible for paid sick leave, compared with 46% of workers in blue-collar occupations and 36% in service occupations.

TABLE 6.3
Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by detailed occupation and sex, 2005 (CONTINUED)
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation 2005
Both sexes Men Women
Number of workers Median weekly earnings Number of workers Median weekly earnings Number of workers Median weekly earnings
*Data not shown where base is less than 50,000.
SOURCE: "39. Median Weekly Earnings of Full-time Wage and Salary Workers by Detailed Occupation and Sex, 2005," Current Population Survey, U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2005, http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsaat39.pdf (accessed January 8, 2006)
   Transportation and material moving occupations 6,848 543 5,972 574 876 412
       Supervisors, transportation and material moving workers 194 734 164 751 29 *
       Aircraft pilots and flight engineers 98 1,366 92 1,368 6 *
       Bus drivers 353 517 213 576 141 456
       Driver/sales workers and truck drivers 2,758 624 2,657 631 101 473
       Taxi drivers and chauffeurs 179 483 155 500 24 *
       Locomotive engineers and operators 53 998 52 1,013 1 *
       Railroad conductors and yardmasters 50 1,017 50 1,017
       Service station attendants 68 323 59 333 9 *
       Crane and tower operators 69 727 66 727 2 *
       Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators 67 616 67 616
       Industrial truck and tractor operators 514 499 483 494 31 *
       Cleaners of vehicles and equipment 224 385 197 390 27 *
       Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand 1,384 456 1,173 469 210 406
       Packers and packagers, hand 377 372 137 406 240 358
       Refuse and recyclable material collectors 66 491 62 501 4 *

As of 1998, blue-collar and service employees in state and local governments in most cases fared better than other state and local government employees. More of the blue-collar and service workers (92%) received paid holidays and vacations than the white-collar employees (86%), except teachers (83%). Less than one-third of the teachers (31%) were awarded paid holidays, and only 10% got paid vacations. However, teachers are typically paid to work a specific number of days per school year. Health care benefits appear to be a basic benefit for all government workers, since about the same proportion of blue-collar and service employees, teachers, and white-collar employees participated in health care benefits.

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